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Ecological Agriculture



Ecological Agriculture
The concept of ecological agriculture
 
    British agronomist M.Worthington defined ecological agriculture as "ecologically self-sustaining, low input, economic vitality, environmental, ethical and aesthetic aspects of small-scale acceptable agriculture." Western ecological agriculture, also known as natural agriculture, organic agriculture and biological agriculture, the food of the production, is ecological food, health food, natural food, organic food.
 
The definition by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: ecological agriculture is a completely different or a production system without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, animal and plant growth regulating agent and additive agent. On the practicable extent, ecological agriculture relies on the crop rotation, straw. animal manure, legumes, green manures, organic waste off-site, ore compensation nutrients containing mineral nutrients, control agriculture crops pest through biological and artificial technology.
Germany defines ecological agriculture according to the following conditions: do not use chemical synthesis insecticides, herbicides, but beneficial predators or mechanical weeding methods; without soluble chemical fertilizers, but organic fertilizer or slow-release fertilizer; through humus to keep the soil fertility; using such as crop rotation or intercropping methods in cultivation; no synthetic plant growth regulators; controlled pasture stocking capacity; natural feeding as animal breeding stuff; without antibiotics; no GM technology.

Although each country has different definition on the ecological agriculture, they are consistent with the goals and purposes, that is: on the clean land, to produce clean food in a clean way, to improve people's health and promote the sustainable development of agriculture.
Background and Developing Situation
First, the development of organic agriculture in the domestic and international environment
From a global perspective, current sales of organic food is less than 1 percent of the total food sales, but it grows very fast, and sales potential is considerable, it was predicted in the early 2000s, the global organic food sales amount would be 5% of the total food sales. However, a little difference in different regions, because most developing countries are focusing on solving the poverty, the development of the organic agriculture is relatively slow; while many developed countries were awared of this issue earlier, already made huge investment and efforts on organic agriculture, and also the government supported and encouraged the farmers to be involved in the organic agriculture through some favorable policies. and therefore the organic farming developed fast in Europe, America and Japan and other countries. For example, about 5% of farms in France specialize in the production of organic food materials. Organic food market is 5% of the total food market, all infant food is basically organic food; 2% -3% farms in other European countries are engaged in organic food production. 1716 companies registered and specialized in organic food processing in the early 1990s. Almost all the chain stores in the United States are selling organic food, 1/3 of Americans buy organic food, organic food sales in 1980 was $ 78 million, estimated $ 6 billion in 2000, 20% growth annual , farmers engaged in organic agricultural production grow in 12% annual . Currently, Japan has more than 8000 organic farms, organic food market will enlarge from 30 billion yen in 1990 to 350 billion yen in 2000, growing by 30% annual.
Domestic prospects
Development of organic agriculture in our country originates in the eighties, in 1984 China Agricultural University started ecological agriculture and organic food research and development, in 1988 Nanjing Environmental Sciences Institute of the State Environmental Protection started research on organic food, and become a member in international organic Agriculture Movement Alliance.
In October, 1994, National Environmental Protection Agency established Organic Food Development Center. Since then, chinese organic food development has become formalized. The organic tea produced by Zhejiang Tea Import and Export Company was exported to the Netherlands in 1990, the organic soybean produced by Liaoning province was exported to Japan in 1994. After that, numerous organic bases were developed one after another across the whole country. In Northeast China and Yunnan, Jiangxi, the organic agriculture developed very fast in some remote mountainous areas. In recent years, many international trading companies, combined with production bases, have developed a variety of products, such as organic beans, peanuts, tea, sunflower seeds, honey. Currently the majority of organic food has been exported to Europe, America, Japan and other countries. From the overall perspective, Chinese organic food production is still at its preliminary stage, in small production scale, and basically for the international market, barely for the domestic market.
There are many advantages and broad prospects in the Development of organic agriculture in China.
First, China has a long history of traditional agriculture, has accumulated a wealth of experience in the intensive farming, ecoresources, keeping soil fertile, coordination of farming and animal husbandry, which is the essence of organic agriculture. Organic agriculture, on the basis of traditional agriculture, is relying on modern scientific knowledge, in the guidance of biology, ecology, soil scientific principles, newly use on the reflection of traditional agricultural.
Second, there are geographical advantages, diverse agro-ecological landscapes, different production conditions in China, even though mainly in chinese agriculture, conventional agricultural is dependent on a large number of chemicals, but there are still many places, mostly in remote mountainous areas or poor areas, farmers rarely use or completely plant without any chemical fertilizers or pesticides, which also provides the favorable foundation for the development of organic agriculture.
Third, organic agriculture production, a labor-intensive industry, there are many chinese rural labor force, which is not only conducive to the development of organic food., but can also provide large working opportunity for the rural surplus labor force.
Fourth, as the approaching of the pace of China’s accession to the World Trade Organization, chinese agricultural exporting will be limited by green non-trade barriers, the development of organic food integrated with international marketing standards, can open up the whole international market. At the same time, with the improvement of the people’s living standards and environmental awareness, in recent years organic food in the domestic market will have big market, so organic food will have broad prospects at home and abroad.
Sanmenxia 26,000 acres of ecological organic bases
As today's food safety crisis rises from all directions, from a simple intuitive way, consumers prefer the vegetables with wormholes. Just because of this, there is already a huge market demand for ecological agriculture. Crisis spawns business opportunities. Under the huge shadow of food safety, the frightened consumers have turned their attention to "green food", thus, the ecological agriculture market has a huge potential.
This demand is also reflected in the capital market. In recent years, being invested in agriculture, especially organic farms, has become a craze. 
Sanmenxia Apple 
Three modes of ecological agriculture
Each Year, it’s the time to publish the “No.1 document”of central government in the end of January and the beginning of February .Capital markets also tend to stir up a related wave of speculation . It is reported that, in preparation for “No.1 document”of the central government in 2014, recently ecological agriculture ministries conducted intensive research on environmental issues and sustainable agricultural development models. In view of the current situation, "No.1 Document" of central government may focus on ecological agriculture this year, which can be seen from the description of ecological agriculture at the 18th national congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC) and the Third Plenary Session. Currently there are three mature eco-agricultural models: virtual factory, three industry linkage and value overlay,
The first eco-agricultural model:
Virtual Factory
The company adopts "Farmers join" farming mode, not produce by itself, just is responsible for brand and market network construction and provide the seeds for free. In the company,' production cluster " consists of a farmer family as one unit, which is equivalent to a" virtual factory. In this mode, farmers are actually the workers for the company.
Insiders pointed out that quality control in the farming process is the key to a "virtual factory" model. Because of this, the company promulgates the "five procedures": First,carefully select qualified farmers;second,encourage the farmers supervision;third,select the team leader from the countryside, to charge the daily grassroots self-management; fourth, companies send technical personnel for guidance on-site;Fifth, real-name system for easily products tracking.
The second eco-agricultural model:
Three industry linkage
The industrial model, summarized as "one center and two basic points, three industry linkage", specifically organic carbon cycle-centred in the urban and rural areas, so urban and rural organic fertilizer can recycle; through farming cycle, they can utilize the carbon rationally. Through cleaner farming, organic farming, microbial conversion industry and tertiary industries linkage development, not only solve the organic waste disposal problem thoroughly, but also promote sustainable urban modern agriculture development. "
Insiders said that in such business model, the approach is that the current government is mainly to build a platform approach, the government establish the station and collect garbage, companies responsible for the operation, and then the government provides disposal costs.
Third Eco-agricultural model:
Value Superposition
Professor Dai Xingyi,  an expert on Resource and Environmental Economics in Fudan University, proposed the idea "value overlay" that ecological agriculture extends to the tertiary industry, thereby amplifying the value of ecological agriculture. "Nong Jia Le" is a typical ecological agriculture project to extend the tertiary industry. Eco-tours, typically city people to the countryside, visiting the cycle agricultural park, tasting organic fruits and vegetables and poultry, night live, purchases some organic agricultural products. Tourist hotel industry is the one that extends the third industry.
Ecological Agriculture
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